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  • Paddy
  • Born and educated in Germany, I came to live in the UK in 1982. After working in various jobs over the years, I am now a freelance writer. I have a passion for wildlife and nature in general and love my family, my dog Jet, writing, music and dragons.
  • Born and educated in Germany, I came to live in the UK in 1982. After working in various jobs over the years, I am now a freelance writer. I have a passion for wildlife and nature in general and love my family, my dog Jet, writing, music and dragons.

A - Z Plant List

A - B - C - D/E

F - G - H/I/J

K/L - M - N/O

P - Q/R - S

T to Z


The A - Z of House Plants is currently under construction. Plant names will be linked to their corresponding articles as they are added. Please be patient - there are a lot of plants, and there may be days when only one or two articles can be added at a time. In the meantime, why not take a look at some of these general care articles:


A brief Guide to Potting Mixes


When and how to repot House Plants


Grooming House Plants - the Basics


Indoor House Plants and Light


Ten House Plants tolerating low Light Conditions


Indoor House Plants and Humidity Levels


Watering Indoor House Plants


Fertilising House Plants


To save readers having to scroll through the whole alphabet when looking for a specific plant, each section will be moved to its own page once all corresponding articles have been added. 


Yet to come: 




(Haworthia species)

Heartleaf Philodendron

(Philodendron scandens)


(Helleborus niger)


(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)

Hyacinth Flower

(Hyacinthus orientalis hybrids)


(Hydrangea macrophylla)




(Impatiens hybrids)

Iron Cross Begonia

(Begonia masoniana)

Ivy Geranium

(Pelargonium peltatum)


(Ixora coccinea)



Jade Plant

(Crassula ovata)

Janet Craig Dracaena

(Dracaena deremensis)

Japanese Aralia

(Fatsia japonica)

Jasmine Plant

(Jasminum polyanthum)

Jerusalem Cherry

(Solanum pseudocapsicum)



Kaffir Lily

(Clivia miniata)

Kentia Palm

(Howea forsteriana)



Lady Palm

(Rhapis excelsa)

Lantana Plants

(Lantana camara)

Lily of the Valley                                      

(Convallaria majalis)

Lipstick Plant                                          

(Aeschynanthus lobbianus)

Living Stones                                           

(Lithops species)

Lucky Bamboo                                        

(Dracaena sanderiana)



Madagascar Palm                                    

(Pachypodium lamerei)

Maidenhair Fern                                       


Mandevilla Plant                                       

(Mandevilla hybrids)

Martha Washington Geranium                   

(Pelargonium domesticum)


(Medinilla magnifica)

Ming Aralia                                              

(Polyscias fruticosa)

Miniature Roses                                        

(Rosa chinensis hybrids)

Mona Lavender                                        

(Plectranthus hybrid)

Money Tree Plant                                     

(Pachira aquatica)

Moses in the Cradle                                 

(Tradescantia spathacea)

Mother of Thousands                                

(Kalanchoe daigremontiana)

Mother-in-Law's Tongue/ Snake Plant        

(Sansevieria trifasciata)



Nerve Plant                                              

(Fittonia verschaffeltii)

New Guinea Impatiens                              

(Impatiens x hawkeri hybrid)

Norfolk Island Pine                                   

(Araucaria heterophylla)



Oleander Plant                                         

(Nerium oleander)

Orchid Cactus                                         

(Epiphyllum species and hybrids)

Ornamental Chili Pepper                           

(Capsicum annuum)



Paddle Plant                                            

(Kalanchoe thyrsiflora)

Panda Plant                                            

(Kalanchoe tomentosa)


(Viola x wittrockiana)

Paperwhite Narcissus                               

(Narcissus jonquilla)

Papyrus Plant                                          

(Cyperus papyrus)

Parlor Palm                                             

(Chamaedorea elegans)

Parrot Flower                                           

(Heliconia psittacorum)

Passion Flower                                        

(Passiflora caerulea)

Peace Lily


Peacock Plant                                         

(Calathea makoyana)


(Peperomia caperata)

Periwinkle Flower                                     

(Catharanthus roseus)

Persian Shield                                         

(Strobilanthes dyerianus)

Persian Violet                                          

(Exacum affine)

Piggyback Plant                                      

(Tolmiea menziesii)

Pink Calla Lily                                         

(Zantedeschia rehmannii)

Pink Quill                                                

(Tillandsia cyanea)

Pitcher Plant                                           

(Nepenthes hybrids)


(Plumeria rubra)

Pocketbook Plant                                    

(Calceolaria herbeohybrida)


(Euphorbia pulcherrima)

Polka Dot Plant                                       

(Hypoestes phyllostachya)

Ponytail Palm                                          

(Beaucarnea recurvata)

Pothos/ Devil's Ivy                                    

(Epipremnum aureum)

Powder Puff Tree                                      

(Calliandra haematocephala)

Prayer Plant                                            

(Maranta leuconeura)

Primrose Flowers                                     

(Primula hybrids)

Purple Heart Plant                                    

(Tradescantia pallida)

Purple Passion Plant                                

(Gynura aurantiaca)

Purple Shamrock                                     

(Oxalis regnellii)

Pygmy Date Palm                                     

(Phoenix roebelenii)



Queen's Tears                                         

(Billbergia nutans)



Rabbit Foot Fern                                      

(Davallia fejeensis)

Rex Begonia                                            

(Begonia rex)

Rosary Vine                                            

(Ceropegia woodii)

Rubber Plant                                           

(Ficus elastica)



Sago Palm                                              

(Cycas revoluta)

Satin Pothos                                           

(Scindapsus pictus)

Scarlet Star                                             

(Guzmania lingulata)

Scented Geranium                                   

(Pelargonium species and hybrids)


(Schefflera actinophylla)

Sensitive Plant                                         

(Mimosa pudica)

Shamrock Plant                                       

(Oxalis species)

Shrimp Plant                                           

(Justicia brandegeana)

Siam Tulip                                               

(Curcuma alismatifolia)

Spider Lily                                               

(Hymenocallis littoralis)

Spider Plant

(Chlorophytum comosum)

Split-Leaf Philodendron                             

(Philodendron bipinnatifidum)

Staghorn Fern                                          

(Platycerium bifurcatum)

Strawberry Begonia                                  

(Saxifraga stolonifera)

String of Pearls                                        

(Senecio rowleyanus)

Swedish Ivy                                             

(Plectranthus species)

Sweet Potato Vine                                   

(Ipomea batatas)

Swiss Cheese Plant                                 

(Monstera deliciosa)


Thanksgiving Cactus                                

(Schlumbergera truncata)

Ti Plant                                                   

(Cordyline terminalis)

Tiger's Jaw                                              

(Faucaria tigrina)


(Tulipa hybrids)


U - V - W

Urn Plant                                                 

(Aechmea fasciata)

Venus Fly Trap                                        

(Dionaea muscipula)

Wandering Jew                                        

(Tradescantia albiflora)

Wax Begonia                                           

(Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum)

Wax Plant                                               

(Hoya carnosa)

Weeping Fig                                            

(Ficus benjamina)

Windmill Palm Tree                                  

(Trachycarpus fortunei)


X - Y - Z


(Yucca elephantipes)

Zebra Plant                                              

(Aphelandra squarrosa)

ZZ Plant                                                  

(Zamioculcas zamiifolia)

Sad News...


Stop Animal Cruelty

Instead of protecting the precious diversity of life on our planet, many countries, groups and individuals delight in performing acts of incredible cruelty to and on animals. To help stop this insanity going on, please go to The Petitions Site and add your voice to the thousands of individuals who are prepared to stand up and say: ' Enough is enough. Stop this now!' 

March 17 2013 1 17 /03 /March /2013 15:23

In spite of being the world's most widely distributed bird - occurring naturally in much of Asia, the Mediterranean and much of Europe, as well as having been introduced (partly by accident and partly intentional) to parts of Africa, the Americas and Australia - populations of the House Sparrow, known by the scientific name of Passer domesticus, are declining rapidly in many areas, including the UK, where numbers have decreased by as much as 60 per cent in cities and by almost half in rural areas. 

Though currently only listed as 'least concern' on the ICUN Red List, the RSPB has this lovely bird classed under the 'Red List Status'.


Sparrow-maleThe fairly compact House Sparrow, a member of the Passeridae family, is typically between 14 and 18 cm (5.5 to 7.1 in) long and has a relatively large, rounded head. Its stout bill has an upper ridge (culmen) length of between 1.1 and 1.5 cm (between 0.42 and 0.59 in); its wing chord measures 6.7 up to 8.9 cm (2 1/2 to 3 1/2 in), and its tail ranges in length between 5.2 and 6.5 cm (2 to just over 2 1/2 in). 

The weight of a House Sparrow can range between 24 and 39.5 g (0.85 to 1.39 oz), depending on the bird's age and sex, as well as the time of year. Females are typically a little smaller than males, but will be larger during the birds' breeding season, while the males tend to be bigger during the winter. 

The plumage of House Sparrows consists mostly of varying shades of brown and grey, and differs between males and females.  Females have brown heads and upper parts, with some dark streaks around the back and wings (mantle). They do not have the black markings - or the grey crown - of the males, but feature a very distinct, pale supercilium (a stripe running from the beak's base over the eye and towards the back of the head). Usually, the underparts of the female are of a pale grey-brown colour.

Male House Sparrows have reddish backs, bold markings and dark grey crowns reaching from their bill's top across to their backs, with the sides of their heads being chestnut brown. They also have black around the bill, on the lores (the spaces between the eyes and the bill) and on the throat. 

There is a fairly small white stripe located between the crown and the lores, and behind the eyes are small white spots (known as postoculars), and black patches above and below them. The male's ear coverts (covering feathers), cheeks and underparts are white or pale-grey, as are the stripes located at the head's base.

sparrow-femaleThe mantle and upper back of the male are warm brown and feature broad, black streaks. The rump, lower back and the upper tail's coverts are typically grey-brown. Much duller - and featuring whitish tips on the ends of many fresh feathers - during the non-breeding season, the black and bright brown markings (including the black patch, badge or bib on the male's throat and chest) are gradually exposed more prominently through preening and general wear. The badge varies in size from one bird to the next, and it is believed that the increase in size is related to the age of a bird.

The plumage of juvenile House Sparrows is generally fairly similar to females, although it tends to be plainer above and of a deeper brown colour below. Although juvenile males often have white postoculars and darker throats, this is not a reliable method of determining the sex of a juvenile.

Sparrows are certainly vocal and can often be heard before they are seen. Most of their vocalisations are essentially variations of their short, but incessant chirping - often transcribed as either chirrup, philip or tschilp - call. This particular note is generally used:

  • As a general contact call among resting/ flocking birds
  • As a nest-ownership proclamation 
  • As an pairing invitation during the breeding season

The latter is typically performed with great speed and emphasis - though not necessarily adhering to a specific rhythm - and repetitively by the male, forming a song-like 'ecstatic call', although it may also be described as a song.

Aggressive males - as well as females establishing dominance over their partner when replacing them to incubate eggs or feed offspring during the breeding season - often also give trilled versions of this call, generally transcribed as 'chur-chur-r-r-it-it-it-it'.

A sound transcribed as 'quer' is given as a nasal alarm call, and a bird in serious distress will produce what can only be described as a shrill 'quee'. Mated pairs also appease one another with an aggression-inhibiting, soft 'quee'.

Young birds, especially those with the misfortune of ending up in captivity, often also produce a 'true song' similar to the warbling of another species of bird, the European Greenfinch.


Well adapted to living among humans, House Sparrows can be found in both urban and sub-urban areas around the world - often even breeding indoors, such as in zoos, warehouses or factories, for instance. Sparrows have even been found breeding 640 m (2,100 ft) - in a coal mine in England - below ground. Others prefer lofty heights - the observation deck of the Empire State building is apparently a favourite haunt for feeding Sparrows during the night.

Although this bird tolerates a broad variety of climates, it does tend to prefer drier conditions, and can survive periods without water by eating berries. In essence, the only habitats in which it is not possible to find Sparrows are tundra and densely forested areas. 

Behaviour, Biology and Diet 

sparrow-woGregarious throughout the year, especially when feeding, House Sparrows are extremely social birds and can often be seen flocking with other bird species. They roost communally; nests are typically grouped in clumps, and there is nothing a Sparrow enjoys quite as much as sharing a communal dust or water bath. Feeding mostly at ground level, these birds flock in bushes and trees - often in large groups (during the non-breeding season) - where they can often be heard indulging in a little communal singing. 

The main nesting season for House Sparrows ranges from April through into August, although this may occasionally be extended either end, mostly depending on weather conditions. Nest sites vary, although cavities - like eaves/ other crevices found in buildings, holes in rotten trees/ branches or sandy banks - are generally preferred. In warmer regions, Sparrows may also nest in hedges or the branches of - preferably evergreen - trees. 

Wherever the site may be, pairs often use the same site year after year. Many pairs also remain faithful to each other for life, although it rarely takes more than a few days to replace a lost partner. At the nest - as well as at feeding stations - the female, though smaller than the male, is dominant.

Typically domed (although nests built/ taken over inside buildings, etc, may be left uncovered) nest holes are first of all filled with straw and/ or dry grass, then lined with feathers, string, hairs, scraps of paper or any other soft material the bird can find (or steal - sparrows have been known to pluck feathers for their nests straight out of living pigeons). 

sparrow-nestThe female then lays a clutch of four to five white, greenish-white or bluish-white, spotted (grey or brown) eggs, often over a period of two to three days. While nesting duties are shared by male and female Sparrows, the female is better equipped for incubation (she develops a special brooding patch of bare skin) and therefore tends to spend most of her time - especially during the night - incubating, while the male perches nearby.

After 11 to 14 days, the chicks begin to hatch. They are then brooded for between 6 and 8 days, although they only begin to control their own body temperature from the age of 10 or 11 days. Typically remaining in the nest for anything between 11 and 23 days, the hatchlings - which will open their eyes after four days and grow the first bits of down after around 8 days - are fed by both parents.

Occasionally, hatchlings fall out of the nest. Those that survive such a fall should - if at all possible - be returned to the nest, as hand-rearing them is extremely difficult and rarely successful, even for experienced rehabilitators (to whom they should be passed on). 

Fledglings still unable to fly should only be moved if likely to be at risk from vehicles, cats, etc - their parents will be nearby and will continue to feed them until ready to sustain themselves. As it is, most fledglings will be able to fly by the time they leave the nest, although they will not start feeding themselves - at least partly - until a day or two after leaving the nest. Their parents will continue to feed them for up to 14 days, after which they reach the ability to sustain themselves and gradually disperse further and further away from the nest.

Females will then lay another clutch, commencing the cycle again. The care of fledglings may, as a matter of fact, be left completely left to the male, while the female prepares the nest - and herself - for the next clutch' often laid within days of the previous brood leaving her care. Altogether, a pair may produce three to for clutches in a single year. 

sparrow-fledglingWhile the majority of House Sparrows tends to move little further than a few kilometres, most regions have limited migration. In coastal areas, for instance, young birds may disperse over comparatively long distances, while Sparrows living in mountain regions tend to move down to lower altitudes for the winter.

Young birds - especially the 'newly independent' ones - tend to gather in huge flocks, seeking areas with an abundance of food. Feeding stations in local gardens and patches of wasteland are some of the preferred areas these 'teenagers' hang out in. Ripening fields of grain are also highly tempting for rural birds, and once the adults have finished nesting, they often join the crowd to feast on the ripening grain. As autumn arrives, the flocks tend to break up, and the Sparrows return to the sites of their nesting colonies.

Adaptable and opportunistic, House Sparrows predominantly feed on seeds of weeds or grain (with a preference for wheat and oats), but will supplement their diet with whatever else is available. This includes anything provided - accidentally or deliberately - by humans (including bread, although they much prefer seeds); flower buds, berries and a variety of fruits like cherries and grapes, for instance. Sparrows in temperate areas are also known to tear up flowers (in particular yellow ones) during the spring.

This does by no means indicate that Sparrows are vegetarian, though. Their diet also includes:

  • Ants
  • Aphids
  • Beetles 
  • Caterpillars 
  • Crickets
  • Crustaceans and mollusks (where available)
  • Dipteran flies
  • Earthworms 
  • Grasshoppers
  • Sawflies
  • Spiders and more

Even frogs and lizards have been known to compliment the Sparrow's diet on occasion. Basically taking advantage of whatever food happens to be in abundance, Sparrows have also been know to steal prey from robins and other birds.

Until around two weeks after hatching, young Sparrows are typically fed predominantly on insects, but they may also be given the odd spider and small quantities of seeds and grit. The latter may sound a little odd, but grit - which may consist of tiny stones, bits of masonry, egg or snail shells - is important for a Sparrows' ability to digest the typically hard seeds it feeds on.

sparrows-in-flight.jpgConsidering all this, it seems remarkable that this gorgeous little creature's numbers should be declining. Unfortunately, young Sparrows suffer a comparatively high rate of mortality - on average, only between 20 and 25 per cent of hatchlings will actually survive long enough to experience their first breeding season. 

In addition, House Sparrows are preyed on by cats, corvids, squirrels and birds of prey (merlins, accipiters and others), as well as - sadly - by humans. In particular around the Mediterranean, House Sparrows are still very much part of the menu for human consumption. To add to the tragedy, these little birds are - especially on European roads - also common road kill victims.

Pesticides also take their toll, as do diseases like Salmonella and Escherichia coli, for example. There are also several parasites that, while usually harmless to adult Sparrows, can seriously affect youngsters. In spite of laws governing the removal of Sparrows' nests without government licences and making the killing of Sparrows illegal, the fact that farmers often see them as pests often also still results in persecution in many areas.

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